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Disorders

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's ability to communicate and interact with others. It also includes restricted repetitive behaviors, interests and activities. These issues cause significant impairment in social, occupational and other areas of functioning.

The term "spectrum" in autism spectrum disorder refers to the wide range of symptoms and severity. Although the term "Asperger's syndrome" is no longer in the DSM, some people still use the term, which is generally thought to be at the mild end of autism spectrum disorder.

The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is rising. It's not clear whether this is due to better detection and reporting or a real increase in the number of cases, or both.

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS
ADHD (ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVE DISORDER)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity).

ADHD has three subtypes:
Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
  • Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories.
  • Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree.
Predominantly inattentive
  • The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree.
  • Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. They may sit quietly, but they are not paying attention to what they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers may not notice that he or she has ADHD.
Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive
  • Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present.
  • Most children have the combined type of ADHD.
ADHD Images
PDD (PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDER)

The term "Pervasive Developmental Disorders," also called PDDs, refers to a group of conditions that involve delays in the development of many basic skills. Most notable among them are the ability to socialize with others, to communicate, and to use imagination. Children with these conditions often are confused in their thinking and generally have problems understanding the world around them.

Because these conditions typically are identified in children around 3 years of age -- a critical period in a child's development -- they are called developmental disorders. The condition actually starts far earlier than age 3, but parents often do not notice a problem until the child is a toddler who is still not walking, talking, or developing in the ways other children of the same age are.

PDD images
CDD

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), or Heller's syndrome, is a rare pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) which involves regression of developmental ability in language, social function and motor skills. It is a devastating condition of unknown cause.

PDDs are a spectrum of behavioural problems associated with autism and autism-like syndromes. They include CDD, Rett's Syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). CDD is considered a low-functioning form of autistic spectrum disorder.[1] However, autism does not show the severe regression after several years of normal development which characterises CDD, and children with CDD show a more dramatic loss of skills compared with children with autism. CDD also tends to develop later than autism, and can develop very much later (up to the age of 10 years).

CDD images
RETT SYNDROME

Rett Syndrome is a rare, but severe brain disorder that affects girls. It's usually discovered in the first two years of life, and a child's diagnosis with Rett syndrome can feel overwhelming. Although there's no cure, early identification and treatment may help girls and families who are affected by Rett syndrome.

Who Gets Rett Syndrome?

Rett syndrome is a genetic that affects girls almost exclusively. It's rare -- only about one in 10,000 to 15,000 girls will develop the condition.

In most cases of Rett syndrome, a child develops normally in early life. Between 6 and 18 months of age, though, changes in the normal patterns of mental and social development begin.

RET Syndrome
LEARNING DISABILITY

A Learning Disability is a neurological disorder. In simple terms, a learning disability results from a difference in the way a person's brain is "wired." Children with learning disabilities are as smart or smarter than their peers. But they may have difficulty reading, writing, spelling, reasoning, recalling and/or organizing information if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways.

A Learning Disability can't be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong issue. With the right support and intervention, however, children with learning disabilities can succeed in school and go on to successful, often distinguished careers later in life.

Parents can help children with Learning Disabilities achieve such success by encouraging their strengths, knowing their weaknesses, understanding the educational system, working with professionals and learning about strategies for dealing with specific difficulties.

Learning Disability
OTHER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS
  • Delayed Development Milestones.
  • Delayed Speech & Languages.
  • Delayed in Reading and Writing Abilities.