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THERAPIES

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

Occupational therapy is the art and science of directing man's participation in selected task, to restore, reinforce and enhance performance, facilitate learning of those skills and functions essential for adaptation and productivity, diminish or correct pathology and to promote and maintain health.

The major approaches used are:
  • Sensory inteegrstion Therapy
  • Behaviour Therapy
  • Cognitive Therapy
  • Neuro - Developmental Therapy
Occupational Therapy Occupational Therapy Occupational Therapy Occupational Therapy

Dysfunction in sensory integration is treatable occupational therapy by supplying vital sensory input to the child which is called " Sensory Diet ". It involves a planned and scheduled activity program. Sensory diet stimulates the near senses with a combination of alerting, organising anf calming techniquies.

CLIENT PATHWAY AFTER REFERRAL
Occupational-Pathway
CONDITIONS DEALT BY OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST
AUTISM

Autism is a preplexing disorder. These unusual children withdraw from human contact. They may be strangely quiet and pre-occupied by minutiae and suddenly become consumed by panic for no apparent reason.

ADHD

Children with ADHD have trouble at home, at school and even at play. They have difficulty in sustaining attention in tasks or play activities. Onset is before the age of 7 years.

CEREBRAL PALSY

It is a non-progressive disorder of brain function manifested by abnormalities of movement and posture and may be accompanied by intellectual and learning deficits.

LEARNING DISABILITY

It is a condition that interferes with the development of oral expresssion, listening comprehension, basic reading skills, writing skills, calculation, reasoning, vision, hearing or motor skills.

MENTAL RETARDATION

It is a condition associated with a variety of social, psychological and physical factors which may be the cause or result of retardation. They have deficits in adaptive behaviour and manifested during developmental period.

DELAYED DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONE

These children's developmental pattern are uneven or atypical rather than the normal pattern . Movements that depend on reflex and neuromuscular maturation, such as head control, posture learned and self initiated motor skills (creeping and walking) are often delayed.

OTHER PHYSICAL DISORDERS

These disorders include poliomyelitis, visual disorder, muscular dystrophy,congenital birth deficits, cancer, spina bifida, AIDS, limb abnormalities, language and communication disorder etc. They are treated appropriately by the occupational therapist.

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY MEASURES

The following are four of the many approaches used by an Occupational Therapist

SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ( SI THERAPY )
Sensory Therapy Sensory Therapy Sensory Therapy

SI develops in the course of ordinary childhood activities.But for some children, SI does not develop as efficiently as it should. This is known as Dysfunction in sensory Integration (DSI). When the process is disordered, a number of problems in various aspects may be evident.

HIGHLIGHTED FEATURES DUE TO SENSORY PROBLEMS
  • Child has vocabulary of less than 50 single words and or no 2 word phrases.
  • Child demonstrates inconsistent use of eye contact, expression to convey needs and desires, gestures and facial expression.
  • Child may not respond to his/her name being called
  • lack of interest in other children
  • lack of interest in simple social games.
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY IN TREATING DSI

DSI is treatable with occupational therapy. Occupational therapists are able to supply the vital sensory input that children with DSI need to grow and learn. Occupational therapist use 'SENSORY DIET', a type of therapy that involves a planned and scheduled activity program. Sensory diet stimulates the near senses with a combination of alerting, organising and calming techniques

BEHAVIOUR THERAPY

Behaviour techniques are effective with children of all levels. The objectives of behaviour therapy is to focus on increasing adaptive behaviour and decreasing maladaptive behaviour. Behavioural techniques are quite effective for teaching self care & toileting skills. They are good for teaching basic imitatives, social and language skills. A high ratio of reinforcement may be used to develop new behaviour. Then the therapist will gradually make reinforcement more intermittent or less frequent. The OTs use various behaviour modification techniques in a professional way, so that the child receives the input in a proper manner.

Behaviour Therapy
COGNITIVE THERAPY

It addresses the development of self control. This approach teaches the children to think about how they think. In short, the children are taught to observe, monitor and control their own behaviour - to plan and think before they act.

MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT THERAPY
It is an approach that focuses on improving,
  • gross motor skills and fine motor skills (day to day physical activities)
  • eye hand co-ordination skills
  • play skills.
COGNITIVE THERAPY
HAND THERAPY
The OTs use this approach in developing,
  • pre-schooling skills
  • pre-writing skills
  • task oriented skills
  • creativity
HAND THERAPY
ADL SKILLS DEVELOPMENTAL THERAPY

This approach deals in making the child independant in their age appropriate ADL skills through simulation, modelling and training techniques.

DEVELOPMENT THERAPY DEVELOPMENT THERAPY
NEURO DEVELOPMENTAL THERAPY

NDT is the approach that concentrates in the inhibition of abnormal postural patterns and facilitation of normal motor patterns with key points of control.

NEURO DEVELOPMENTAL THERAPY
BENEFITS OF EARLY INTERVENTION

Intervening the child earlier plays a major role in the child's progress. More than any body else, the parents take up the most responsible job in early intervention through keen observation of their child. Benefits of early intervention are many. To say in short, earlier the child is diagnosed, more functional they can be brought up.

Occupational Therapy Tools:
  • General Physical Assessment (GPA)
  • Sensory Integration and Praxis Test(SIPT)
  • Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)
  • Gross Motor and Fine Motor Assessment (GMFMS)
  • Hand Function Assessment (HFA)
  • Hand Writing Assessment(HWA)
  • Activities of Daily Living Assessment(FIM Scale)